22.09.2021 | Media Release, iDiv Members, TOP NEWS

Functioning of terrestrial ecosystems is governed by three main factors

The experimental site in Torgnon (Italy), a grassland located at about 2100 m in the Western Italian Alps, and belonging to the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and FLUXNET network.  (Picture: Marta Galvagno)

The experimental site in Torgnon (Italy), a grassland located at about 2100 m in the Western Italian Alps, and belonging to the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) and FLUXNET network.  (Picture: Marta Galvagno)

Note for the media: Use of the pictures provided by iDiv is permitted for reports related to this media release only, and under the condition that credit is given to the picture originator.

Study helps to better assess the capacity of global ecosystems to adapt to climate and environmental change

Based on a media release by the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI BGC) 

Jena. Ecosystems provide multiple services for humans. However, these services depend on basic ecosystem functions which are shaped by natural conditions like climate and species composition, and human interventions. A large international research team, led by the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry (MPI BGC), and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), identified three key indicators that together summarise the integrative function of terrestrial ecosystems: The first is the capacity to maximise primary productivity, the second is the efficiency of using water, and the third is the efficiency of using carbon. The monitoring of these key indicators will allow a description of ecosystem function that shapes the ability to adapt, survive and thrive in response to climatic and environmental changes. The study was recently published in the journal Nature.

Ecosystems on Earth’s land surface support multiple functions and services that are critical for society, like biomass production, vegetation’s efficiency of using sunlight and water, water retention and climate regulation, and ultimately food security. Climate and environmental changes, as well as anthropogenic impacts, are continuously threatening the provision of these functions. To understand how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to this threat, it is crucial to know which functions are essential to obtain a good representation of the ecosystems’ overall well-being and functioning. This is particularly difficult since ecosystems are rather complex in terms of their structure and their responses to environmental changes. 

A large international network of researchers, led by Dr Mirco Migliavacca at MPI BGC and iDiv in Germany, tackled this question by combining multiple data streams and methods. The scientists used environmental data from global networks of ecosystem stations, combined with satellite observations, mathematical models, and statistical and causal discovery methods. The result is strikingly simple: “We were able to identify three key indicators that allow us to summarise how ecosystems function: the maximum realised productivity, the efficiency of using water, and the efficiency of using carbon” says the study’s first author Dr Migliavacca. The maximum productivity indicator reflects the capacity of the given ecosystem to uptake CO2. The water use indicator is a combination of metrics representing the ecosystem water use efficiency, which is the carbon taken up per quantity of water transpired by plants. The carbon use efficiency indicator reflects the use of carbon by an ecosystem, which represents the carbon respired versus carbon taken up. The surprising findings made the team reflect on how complex ecosystems are ultimately driven by a small set of major factors just like was found, for instance, for leaf photosynthesis based on a handful of leaf traits. 

“Using only these three major factors, we can explain almost 72 percent of the variability within ecosystem functions,” Migliavacca adds. “With water-use efficiency being the second major factor, our results emphasise the importance of water availability for ecosystems’ performance. This will be crucial for climate change impact considerations,” says last author Prof Dr Markus Reichstein, director of the department Biogeochemical Integration at MPI BGC and iDiv.

The researchers inspected the exchange rates of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and energy at 203 monitoring stations around the world that belong to the FLUXNET network, a collaborative network of multiple research teams and field sites that collect and share their data. The selected sites cover a large variety of climate zones and vegetation types. For each site, they calculated a set of the ecosystems’ functional properties, and further included calculations on average climate and soil water availability variables as well as vegetation characteristics and satellite data on vegetation biomass.

The three identified functional indicators critically depend on the structure of vegetation, that is vegetation greenness, nitrogen content of leaves, vegetation height, and biomass. This result underlines the importance of ecosystem structure, which can be shaped by disturbances and forest management in controlling ecosystem functions. At the same time, the water and carbon use efficiency also critically depend on climate and partly on aridity, which points at the critical role of climate change for future ecosystem functioning. “Our exploratory analysis serves as a crucial step towards developing indicators for ecosystem functioning and ecosystem health,” summarises Reichstein, “adding to a comprehensive assessment of the world’s ecosystems response to climate and environmental changes.”

Original publication:
(Researchers with iDiv affiliation bold)

Migliavacca, M., ..., Mahecha, M., ..., Kattge, J., & Reichstein, M. (2021): The three major axes of terrestrial ecosystem function, Nature, DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03939-9



Dr Mirco Migliavacca
Department Biogeochemical Integration
Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry
now at:
European Commission
Joint Research Centre, Italy
Phone: +39 0332 789085
Email: mirco.migliavacca@ec.europa.eu


Prof Dr Markus Reichstein
Department Biogeochemical Integration
Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry
Phone: +49 3641 576200
Email: mreichstein@bgc-jena.mpg.de


Sebastian Tilch
Media and Communications
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig
Phone: +49 341 97 33197
Email: sebastian.tilch@idiv.de
Web: www.idiv.de/media


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